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Aristocracy - A governing body of upper class citizens or the system of government in which aristocrats (upper class citizens) have controlling power. Bulbar depression - A depression left on the core (where a flake's bulb of percussion was attached) when a blade or flake was struck off. Ceramics - Objects, often pottery, made of fired or baked clay.
In an aristocracy people are generally born into distinct social classes and there is little or no upward mobility. Chert - A fine-grained sedimentary rock, similar to flint, that is white, pinkish, brown, gray, or blue-gray in color.
Linguists study languages, especially their development and their function within human culture. Back dirt - The excavated, discarded material (sediment, dirt) from a site that has generally been sifted for artifacts and is presumed to be of no further archaeological significance.
Antiquarian - A term generally indicating a pre-20th-century collector of ancient artifacts before the development of scientific archaeology and the establishment of standards for excavating and preserving finds. This material may later be used to refill test pits, an action referred to as "back filling." Balk - A side wall of an excavated unit (square) or a partition of earth left standing between adjoining excavation units.
In the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-disciplines: archaeology, biological/physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics.
Archaeoastronomy - The study of ancient astronomical knowledge and its role in past cultures. - Before Present; used in age determination instead of B. Balks are often left to aid with stratigraphic analysis.
Archaeology - The scientific excavation and study of ancient human material remains. Benchmark - For excavation purposes, a permanent point at a known elevation that can be used to measure other elevations during excavation . Biface tools - Stone tools that have been worked on both sides or faces, meaning that flakes have been intentionally (not naturally) chipped off from both sides of the stone.
More flakes were knocked off from both sides of a stone and there is evidence that the maker had a preconceived notion of the tool's final form.
Acropolis - The "high point" or citadel of an ancient Greek city, like the Acropolis in Athens.