Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal protein

Urinary crystals with various sizes are present in healthy individuals and patients with kidney stone; however, the cellular uptake mechanism of calcium oxalate of various sizes has not been elucidated.

This study aims to compare the internalization of nano-/micron-sized (50 nm, 100 nm, and 1 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells.

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The FITC characteristic absorption peak was observed at 488–500 nm, and absorption intensity was determined (Fig.Vero cells were incubated with the crystals at 4 °C, at which endocytosis is hindered but adhesion is unaffected confirmed that binding Ca Ox to kidney epithelial cells reached the maximum within several minutes.Statistical analysis of fluorescently labeled COM and COD crystals showed that more than 99% of the crystals were labeled as fluorescent (Fig.reported that HK-2 cells adhere to COM and COD crystals (crystal size of approximately 10 μm) without evident difference in quantity.We used an integer (COM-50 nm, COM-100 nm, COM-1 μm, COD-50 nm, COD-100 nm and COD-1 μm) to represent the crystal size for simplicity and convenience.

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